Italy - Constitution

{ Adopted: 22 Dec 1947 / Effective 1 Jan 1948 / Status: 1993 }

[Part 0] Basic Principles

Article 1 [Form of State]
(1) Italy is a democratic Republic founded on labor.
(2) Sovereignty belongs to the people who exercise it in the manner and within the limits laid down by this Constitution.

Article 2 [Human Rights]
The Republic recognizes and guarantees the inviolable rights of man, both as an individual and as a member of the social groups in which his personality finds expression, and it imposes the performance of unalterable political, economic, and social duties.

Article 3 [Freedom, Equality]
(1) All citizens are invested with equal social status and are equal before the law, without distinction as to sex, race, language, religion, political opinions, and personal or social conditions.
(2) It is the responsibility of the Republic to remove all economic and social obstacles which, by limiting the freedom and equality of citizens, prevent the full development of the individual and the participation of all workers in the political, economic, and social organization of the country.

Article 4 [Work]
(1) The Republic recognizes the right of all citizens to work and promotes such conditions as will make this right effective.
(2) Every citizen shall undertake, according to his possibilities and his own choice, an activity or a function contributing to the material and moral progress of society.

Article 5 [Local Autonomy]
The Republic, which is one and indivisible, recognizes and promotes local autonomy; it applies the fullest measure of administrative decentralization in services dependent on the State and adjusts the principles and methods of its legislation to the requirements of autonomy and decentralization.

Article 6 [Minorities]
The Republic safeguards linguistic minorities by means of special provisions.

Article 7 [State and Church]
(1) The State and the Catholic Church are, each within its own ambit, independent and sovereign.
(2) Their relations are regulated by the Lateran Pacts. Such amendments to these Pacts as are accepted by both parties do not require any procedure of Constitutional revision.

Article 8 [Religion]
(1) All religious denominations are equally free before the law.
(2) Religious denominations other than Catholic are entitled to organize themselves according to their own creed provided that they are not in conflict with Italian juridical organization.
(3) Their relations with the State are regulated by law on the basis of agreements with their respective representatives.

Article 9 [Research and Culture]
(1) The Republic promotes the development of scholarship and scientific and technical research.
(2) It safeguards the natural beauties and the historical and artistic wealth of Italy.

Article 10 [International Law]
(1) Italy's legal system conforms with the generally recognized principles of international law.
(2) The legal status of foreigners is regulated by law in conformity with international rules and treaties. .
(3) A foreigner to whom the practical exercise in his own country of democratic freedoms, guaranteed by the Italian Constitution, is precluded, is entitled to the right of asylum within the territory of the Republic, under conditions laid down by law.
(4) The extradition of a foreigner for political offenses is not admitted.

Article 11 [Condemnation of War]
Italy condemns war as an instrument of aggression against the liberties of other peoples and as a means for settling international controversies; it agrees, on conditions of equality with other states, to such limitation of sovereignty as may be necessary for a system calculated to ensure peace and justice between Nations; it promotes and encourages international organizations having such ends in view.

Article 12 [Flag]
The flag of the Republic is the Italian Tricolor: green, white, and red, in three vertical bands of equal dimensions.

Part I Rights and Duties of Private Citizens

Part I Rights and Duties of Private Citizens

Title I Civil Relations

Article 13 [Personal Freedom]
(1) Personal liberty is inviolable.
(2) No form of personal detention, inspection, or search is permitted, nor other restrictions on personal liberty save by order of the judicial authority for which the motive must be stated, and then only in such cases and manner as the law provides.
(3) In exceptional cases of necessity and urgency, strictly defined by law, the police authorities may carry out provisional measures, which must be communicated within 48 hours to the judicial authorities and which, if the latter do not ratify them within the next 48 hours, are thereby revoked and declared null and void.
(4) All acts of physical and moral violence on persons subjected to limitations of freedom are punished.
(5) The law lays down the maximum period of preventive detention.

Article 14 [Home]
(1) Personal domicile is inviolable.
(2) Inspection, search, and distraint may not be carried out save in cases and in the manner laid down by law in conformity with guarantees prescribed for safeguarding personal freedom.
(3) Special laws regulate verifications and inspections for reasons of public health and safety, or for economic and fiscal purposes.

Article 15 [Correspondence]
(1) The liberty and secrecy of correspondence and of every form of communication are inviolable.
(2) Limitations upon them may only be enforced by decision, for which motives must be given, of the judicial authorities with the guarantees laid down by law.

Article 16 [Right to Move]
(1) Every citizen has the right to reside and travel freely in any part of the metropolitan territory, save for such limitations as the laws may prescribe in a general way for reasons of health or security. No restrictions may be prescribed for political reasons.
(2) Every citizens is free to leave the territory of the Republic and re-enter it, save for such obligations as are laid down by law.

Article 17 [Assembly]
(1) Citizens are entitled to hold meetings peaceably and unarmed.
(2) No previous notice is required for meetings in places to which the public has access.
(3) For meetings in public thoroughfares previous notice must be communicated to the authorities, who may forbid them only for well established reasons of security or public safety.

Article 18 [Association]
(1) Citizens are entitled to form associations without authorization for reasons not forbidden to individuals by criminal law.
(2) Secret associations and those which pursue political aims, even indirectly, by means of organizations of a military character, are forbidden.

Article 19 [Freedom of Religion]
All are entitled to freely profess their religious convictions in any form, individually or in associations, to propagate them, and to celebrate them in public or in private, save in the case of rites contrary to morality.

Article 20 [Religious Institutions]
The religious character and the religious or confessional aims of an association or institution shall not involve special legal limitations or special fiscal burdens for its constitution, legal status, or any of its activities.

Article 21 [Communication]
(1) All are entitled freely to express their thoughts by word of mouth, in writing, and by all other means of communication.
(2) The press may not be subjected to any authority or censorship.
(3) Distraint is allowed only by order of the judicial authorities, for which motives must be given, in the case of offenses definitely laid down by the press law, or in the case of violation of the provisions which the said law prescribes for identifying responsible parties.
(4) In such cases, under conditions of absolute urgency and when the immediate intervention of the judicial authorities is not possible, distraint may be applied to the periodical press by officers of the judicial police, who shall communicate the matter to the judicial authorities within 24 hours. If the said judicial authorities do not ratify the measure within the next 24 hours, the distraint is withdrawn and is null and void.
(5) The law may prescribe, by means of provisions of a general nature, that the financial sources of periodical publication be made known.
(6) Printed publications, performances, and all other manifestations contrary to morality are forbidden.
(7) The law lays down proper provisions for preventing and repressing all violations.

Article 22 [Citizenship, Name]
No one may be deprived of his legal status, his citizenship, or his name for political reasons.

Article 23 [Forced Labor]
No personal service or payment may be forced on anyone, save according to law.

Article 24 [Recourse to Courts]
(1) All are entitled to institute legal proceedings for the protection of their own rights and legitimate interests.
(2) Defence is an inalienable right at every stage of legal proceedings.
(3) The indigent are entitled, through special provisions, to proper means for action or defence at all levels of jurisdiction.
(4) The law lays down the conditions and methods for obtaining reparation for judicial errors.

Article 25 [Rule of Law]
(1) No one may avoid proceedings resulting from offenses against legislation in force.
(2) No one may be punished save on the basis of a law which has come into force before the offence has been committed.
(3) No on may be subjected to security measures save in such cases as are laid down by law.

Article 26 [Extradition]
(1) The extradition of a citizen is permitted only in cases expressly provided for in international conventions.
(2) Extradition shall never be permitted for political offenses.

Article 27 [Rights of the Accused]
(1) Criminal responsibility is personal.
(2) The person accused is not considered guilty until final sentence has been passed upon him.
(3) Punishment must not consist of measures contrary to humane precepts and shall aim at reforming the person upon whom sentence is passed.
(4) The death penalty is not admitted save in cases specified by military laws in time of war.

Article 28 [Responsibility of Officials]
Officials and employees of the State and of public bodies are directly responsible, according to the criminal, civil, and administrative laws, for acts committed in violation of rights. In such cases, civil responsibility extends to the State and to public bodies.

Title II Ethical and Social Relations

Title II Ethical and Social Relations

Article 29 [Marriage]
(1) The State recognizes the family as a natural association founded on
(2) Marriage is based on the moral and legal equality of husband and wife, within the limits laid down by the laws for ensuring family unity.

Article 30 [Education]
(1) It is the duty and right of parents to support, instruct and educate their children, even those born out of wedlock.
(2) The law states the way in which these duties shall be fulfilled should the parents prove incapable.
(3) The law ensures full legal and social protection for children born out of wedlock consistent with the rights of the members of the legitimate family.
(4) The law lays down rules and limitations for ascertaining paternity.

Article 31 [Family]
(1) The Republic facilitates, by means of economic and other provisions, the formation of the family and the fulfillment of the tasks connected therewith, with particular consideration for large families.
(2) It safeguards maternity, infancy, and youth, promoting and encouraging institutions necessary for such purposes.

Article 32 [Health]
(1) The Republic provides health safeguards as a basic right of the individual and in the interests of the community, and grants medical assistance to the indigent free of charge.
(2) No one may be forced to undergo any particular medical treatment, save under the provisions of the law. In no case shall the law violate the limits imposed by proper respect for the human person.

Article 33 [Teaching, Examination]
(1) The freedom of art and science and freedom of instruction in them is affirmed.
(2) The Republic lays down general rules for education and establishes public schools of all kinds and grades. Organizations and private citizens are entitled to found schools and educational institutions which do not involve charges on the State.
(3) The law, in laying down the rights and obligations of private schools which apply for official recognition, must ensure for them full liberty and for their pupils conditions equivalent to those of the public schools.
(4) State examinations are prescribed for admission to the various types and grades of schools, or on the conclusion of educational courses, and for securing diplomas and certificates entitling candidates to exercise a profession or trade.
(5) Institutions of higher learning, universities, and academies have the right to draft their own regulations within the limits laid down by State legislation.

Article 34 [Education]
(1) Education is available to everyone.
(2) Elementary education, imparted for at least eight years, is compulsory and free.
(3) Capable and deserving pupils, even if without financial resources, are entitled to attain the highest grades of learning.
(4) The Republic gives effect to this privilege by means of scholarships, of contributions to the families of the pupils, and other provisions, to be obtained by competitive examination.

Title III Economic Relations

Title III Economic Relations

Article 35 [Work]
(1) The Republic safeguards labor in all its forms and methods of execution.
(2) It provides for the professional or vocational training and advancement of workers.
(3) It promotes and encourages international agreements, and organizations calculated to confirm and regulate the rights of labor.
(4) It admits freedom to emigrate, save for such limitations as are prescribed by law in the general interests, and for the protection of Italian labor abroad.

Article 36 [Wages]
(1) An employed person is entitled to wages in proportion to the quantity and quality of his work, and in any case sufficient to provide him and his family with a free and dignified existence.
(2) The maximum number of hours of work per day is fixed by law.
(3) An employed person is entitled to a weekly day of rest and to annual holidays with pay; he cannot relinquish this right.

Article 37 [Equality in Work]
(1) Female labor enjoys equal rights and the same wages for the same work as male labor. Conditions of work must make it possible for them to fulfill their essential family duties and provide for the adequate protection of mothers and children.
(2) The law prescribes the minimum age for paid labor.
(3) The Republic prescribes special measures for safeguarding juvenile labor and guarantees equal pay for equal work.

Article 38 [Welfare]
(1) Every private citizen unable to work and unprovided with the resources necessary for existence is entitled to private and social assistance.
(2) Workers are entitled to adequate insurance for their requirements in case of accident, illness, disability, old age, and involuntary unemployment.
(3) The disabled and persons incapable of employment are entitled to education and vocational training.
(4) The responsibilities laid down in this Article are entrusted to organs and institutions provided or assisted by the State.
(5) The freedom of private assistance is affirmed.

Article 39 [Unions]
(1) Freedom in the organization of trade unions is affirmed.
(2) No compulsion may be imposed on trade unions except that of registering at local or central offices according to the provisions of the law.
(3) A condition of registration is that the statutes of the unions sanction an internal organization on a democratic basis.
(4) Registered trade unions have a legal status. They may, being represented in proportion to the number of their registered members, negotiate collective labor agreements having compulsory value for all persons belonging to the categories to which the said agreements refer.

Article 40 [Strike]
The right to strike is exercised within the sphere of the laws concerning the subject.

Article 41 [Business]
(1) Private economic enterprise is open to all.
(2) It cannot, however, be applied in such a manner as to be in conflict with social utility or when it is prejudicial to security, freedom, and human dignity.
(3) The law prescribes such planning and controls as may be advisable for directing and coordinating public and private economic activities towards social objectives.

Article 42 [Property]
(1) Ownership is public or private. Economic commodities belong to the State, to public bodies, or to private persons.
(2) Private ownership is recognized and guaranteed by laws which prescribe the manner in which it may be acquired and enjoyed and its limitations, with the object of ensuring its social function and of rendering it accessible to all.
(3) Private property, in such cases as are prescribed by law and with provisions for compensation, may be expropriated in the general interest.
(4) The law lays down the rules and limitations of legitimate and testamentary inheritance and the rights of the State in relation to same.

Article 43 [Expropriation]
For purposes of general utility the law may reserve in the first instance or transfer, by means of expropriation and payment of compensation, to the State, to public bodies, or to labor or consumer communities, certain undertakings or categories of undertakings operating essential public services, sources of power, or exercising monopolies and invested primarily with a character of general interest.

Article 44 [Land]
(1) With the object of securing a rational utilization of the soil and of establishing equitable and rational social relations, the law imposes obligations on, and limitations to, private landed ownership, fixes limits to its extent which vary in the different parts of the country and according to diverse agricultural areas, encourages and imposes land reclamation, the transformation of large estates, and the institution of productive units, and assists small and medium sized holdings.
(2) The law prescribes measures in favor of mountainous areas.

Article 45 [Cooperation]
(1) The Republic recognizes the social function of cooperation on a basis of reciprocity and devoid of any private speculative aim. The law promotes and encourages such cooperation with suitable provisions and through proper controls ensures its character and objectives.
(2) The law guarantees and provides for the development of artisan trades.

Article 46 [Participation]
With a view to the economic and social progress of labor and in conformity with the requirements of production, the Republic recognizes the rights of workers to participate in management in the manner and within the limits prescribed by law.

Article 47 [Savings, Credits]
(1) The Republic encourages and safeguards savings in all its aspects and supervises, coordinates and controls the issuing of credit.
(2) It encourages the investment of private savings in the purchase of homes or holdings directly farmed by the owners and direct or indirect investment in large productive enterprise.

Title IV Political Relations

Title IV Political Relations

Article 48 [Electoral Rights]
(1) All private citizens, male or female, who are of age, are entitled to vote.
(2) Votes are personal, equal, free, and secret. To vote is a civic duty.
(3) The right to vote may not be limited save on account civil incapacity or in consequence of an irrevocable penal sentence, or in cases of moral unworthiness established by law.

Article 49 [Political Parties]
All citizens have the right to freely form political parties in order to contribute by democratic means to national policy.

Article 50 [Petitions]
All citizens may submit petitions to Parliament demanding legislative measures or setting forth general needs.

Article 51 [Public Office]
(1) All citizens of either sex are eligible for public office and for elective positions on conditions of equality, according to the requisites established by law.
(2) The law may place Italians who do not belong to the Republic on a par with resident citizens in the matter of admission to public office and elective positions.
(3) Any person called upon to occupy an elective office has the right to claim the time necessary for the fulfillment of such duties without being deprived of his employment.

Article 52 [Military Service]
(1) The defence of the country is a moral duty of every citizen.
(2) Military service is compulsory, within the limits and in the manner laid down by law. The fulfillment of military duty shall not prejudice the employment of the person concerned, nor the exercise of his political rights.
(3) The organization of the Armed Forces is based on the democratic principles of the Republic.

Article 53 [Taxation]
(1) Everyone shall contribute to public expenditure in proportion to his resources.
(2) Fiscal levies shall be on a progressive scale.

Article 54 [Binding Constitution, Oaths]
(1) All citizens have the duty of fealty to the Republic and shall respect the Constitution and the laws.
(2) Citizens to whom public functions are entrusted shall execute them in a disciplined and honorable manner swearing an oath to fulfill such conditions in those cases prescribed by law.

Part II Organization of the Republic

Part II Organization of the Republic

Title I Parliament

Section I The Two Chambers

Article 55 [Parliament]
(1) Parliament consists of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic.
(2) Parliament holds joint meetings of members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate only in cases laid down by the Constitution.

Article 56 [Chamber of Deputies]
(1) The Chamber of Deputies is elected by universal and direct suffrage, and is composed of six hundred and thirty Members.
(2) All persons who have reached the age of twenty-five years on the day of the elections are eligible for membership.
(3) Division of seats among the constituencies is obtained by dividing the number of inhabitants registered at the last census by six hundred and thirty and distributing the said seats in proportion to the population of each constituency, on the basis of the quotients and the highest figures below these quotients.

Article 57 [Senate]
(1) The Senate of the Republic is elected on a regional basis.
(2) Senators number three hundred and fifteen. No region may have less than ten Senators but Molise is attributed two and Valle d'Aosta one. Division of seats among the Regions, on the basis of the terms set out above, is made according to the proportion of the population of the Regions at the last census, with quotients and the highest figures below these quotients.

Article 58 [Senate Elections]
(1) Senators are elected by direct universal suffrage by voters over twenty-five years of age.
(2) Voters over forty years of age are eligible for election to the Senate.

Article 59 [Senators for Life]
(1) Any person who has held office as President of the Republic is by right a Senator for Life, unless he refuses to accept the nomination.
(2) The President of the Republic may nominate, as Senators for Life, five citizens, who have brought honor to the Nation through their exceptional merits in social, scientific, artistic, and literary fields.

Article 60 [Term]
(1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate are elected for a period of five years.
(2) The term of each Chamber may not be extended save by law and only in the event of war.

Article 61 [Elections]
(1) Election of the new Chambers must take place within seventy days of the dissolution of the preceding Parliament. The first sitting must be held not later than twenty days after the elections.
(2) The powers of the preceding Chambers shall continue until the newly elected Parliament shall meet.

Article 62
(1) The Chambers shall meet on the first day of February and October which is not a holiday.
(2) Each Chamber may be convened in extraordinary session on the initiative of its Speaker or of the President of the Republic or of one third of its members.
(3) When one Chamber is called upon to meet in extraordinary session, the other Chamber is also convened ipso jure.

Article 63 [Speaker]
(1) Each Chamber elects its Speaker and the members of the Speaker's Office from among its own members.
(2) The Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies and members of the Speaker's Office shall preside whenever Parliament meets in joint session.

Article 64 [Rules of Procedures, Quorum, Government
(1) Each Chamber drafts its own Standing Orders by an absolute majority of its members.
(2) Sittings are open to the public; nevertheless each of the two Chambers and Parliament in joint session may decide to assemble in private.
(3) The decisions of each Chamber and of Parliament are not valid unless the majority of the members are present, and unless they are voted for by a majority of the members present, save where the Constitution provides for a special majority.
(4) Members of the Government, even if they are not members of the Chambers, are entitled to attend meetings and are obliged to be present if called upon. They have a right to be heard whenever they request this right.

Article 65 [Incompatibility]
(1) The law determines cases of ineligibility or incompatibility with the position of Deputy or Senator.
(2) No person may be a member of both Chambers at the same time.

Article 66 [Scrutiny]
Each Chamber decides as to the validity of the admission of its own members and as to cases subsequently arising concerning ineligibility and incompatibility.

Article 67 [Independence]
Each Member of Parliament represents the Nation and carries out his duties without restraint of mandate.

Article 68 [Indemnity, Immunity]
(1) Members of Parliament may not be proceeded against for opinions expressed or votes given in the exercise of their duties.
(2) No member of Parliament may, without the authority of the Chamber to which he belongs, be subject to criminal proceedings, nor be arrested or otherwise deprived of his personal liberty, nor subjected to search warrants on his person or in his home unless he be caught in the act of committing an offence for which an order of arrest is compulsory.
(3) A similar authority is required to arrest or keep in a state of detention a member of Parliament in the execution of a sentence even if it be irrevocable.

Article 69 [Allowance]
Members of Parliament receive an allowance as laid down by law.

Section II The Drafting of Laws

Article 70 [Legislative Power]
Legislative duties are carried out jointly by the two Chambers.

Article 71 [Initiative]
(1) Legislative initiative pertains to the Government, to each member of the two Chambers, and to those organs and bodies on whom it is conferred by Constitutional law.
(2) The people exercise initiative in legislation through the proposal, supported by not less than 50,000 voters, of a Bill drafted in the form of articles.

Article 72 [Legislative Proceedings]
(1) Every Bill submitted to one of the Chambers is, according to the Standing Orders, examined by a Committee and then by the Chamber itself which approves it, article by article, and subsequently with a final vote. The Standing Orders provide an abbreviated procedure for Bills declared to be urgent.
(2) They also lay down in what cases and in what manner the examination and approval of Bills shall be submitted to committees, including Standing Committees so composed as to reflect the various proportions of the Parliamentary groups. Furthermore, in such cases, a Bill, until it is finally voted upon, is submitted to the Chamber, if the Government or one-tenth of the members of the Chamber or one-fifth of the Committee demand that it be debated and voted on by the Chamber itself or submitted to the latter for its final approval with a nominal vote. The Standing Ordens decide as to the way in which the work of the Committees shall be divulged.
(3) The normal procedure for the debating and voting of Bills by the Chamber is always applied in the case of Bills of a constitutional and electoral nature and for those delegating legislative power, for authority to ratify international treaties, and for voting on budgets and rectified budgets.

Article 73 [Promulgation]
(1) Laws are promulgated by the President of the Republic within a month of their having been voted.
(2) If the two Chambers, each with an absolute majority among its own members, declare a Bill to be urgent, it is promulgated within the time laid down in the Bill itself.
(3) Laws are published immediately after they have been promulgated and come into force on the fifteenth day after their publication, unless the laws themselves provide otherwise.

Article 74 [Veto]
(1) The President of the Republic, before promulgating a law, may request further discussion by means of a message to both Chambers in which the reasons for such action are set forth.
(2) If the Chambers vote the Bill once more, the law must be promulgated.

Article 75 [Referendum]
(1) A popular Referendum is held to decide on the total or partial repeal of a law or of a measure having force of law if it is demanded by 500,000 voters or by five Regional Councils.
(2) Referenda are not allowed in the case of fiscal or budget laws, amnesties or pardons, or laws authorizing the ratification of international treaties.
(3) All citizens entitled to vote for the election of members of the Chamber of Deputies are entitled to take part in a Referendum.
(4) The proposal submitted to Referendum is approved if the majority of those eligible have participated in the voting, and if it has received a majority of valid votes.
(5) The methods or carrying out a referendum are laid down by law.

Article 76 [Ordinances]
The exercise of legislative functions may not be delegated by the Government save by the laying down of principles and criteria and only for a limited period of time and for definite objects.

Article 77 [Decrees, Provisional Measures]
(1) The Government may not, unless properly delegated by the Chambers, issue decrees having the value of ordinary laws.
(2) When, in exceptional cases of necessity and urgency, the Government issues, on its own responsibility, provisional measures having force of law, it shall on the same day submit them for conversion into law to the Chambers which, even if they have been dissolved, are expressly summoned for that purpose and shall meet within five days.
(3) Decrees lose effect as of the date of issue if they are not converted into law within sixty days of their publication. The Chambers may, however, approve laws to regulate legal questions arising out of decrees not yet converted into law.

Article 78 [State of War]
The Chambers declare a state of war and confer the necessary powers on the Government.

Article 79 [Amnesty]
(1) The right of amnesty and indult are granted by the President of the Republic, on the basis of laws enacted by the Chambers delegating such power.
(2) Amnesty and indult are not applicable in the case of offenses committed subsequent to the proposal for delegating such authority.

Article 80 [Ratification of Treaties]
The Chambers authorize, by law, ratification of international treaties of a political nature, or which provide for arbitration or judicial regulation, or imply modifications to the nation's territory or financial burdens, or to laws.

Article 81 [Budgets]
(1) The Chambers vote the budgets and the audited accounts submitted by the Government each year.
(2) The right to execute the provisional budget may not be granted save by law and for periods of not over four months.
(3) No new taxes or new expenditure can be established by the law approving the budget.
(4) In all other laws implying new or additional expenditure the means for covering it must be set forth.

Article 82 [Inquiries]
(1) Each Chamber may order inquiries into matters of public interest.
(2) To this end, it appoints a Committee of its own members so composed as to represent the proportions of the various political groups. The Committee of Enquiry carries out its investigations and examination with the same powers and the same limitations as the judicial authorities.

Title II The President of the Republic

Title II The President of the Republic

Article 83 [Presidential Elections]
(1) The President of the Republic is elected by Parliament during a joint session of both Chambers.
(2) Three delegates from every Region, elected by the Regional Council in such a manner as to ensure the representation of minorities, take part in the election.
(3) The Valle d'Aosta is represented by only one delegate.
(4) Presidential elections take place by secret ballot with a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly. After the third ballot an absolute majority is sufficient.

Article 84 [Eligibility, Incompatibility, Allowance]
(1) Any citizen of fifty years of age enjoying civil and political rights is eligible for election as President of the Republic.
(2) The office of President of the Republic is incompatible with any other office.
(3) The allowances and endowments of the President are established by law.

Article 85 [Term]
(1) The Presidential term shall be seven years.
(2) Thirty days before the term lapses the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies summons Parliament in joint session together with the Regional delegates to elect the new President of the Republic.
(3) If Parliament has been dissolved or is to be dissolved within three months, the election is held within fifteen days of the meeting of the new Chambers. In the interval, the powers of the existing President are prolonged.

Article 86 [Speaker of the Senate]
(1) Should the President prove to be unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be carried out by the Speaker of the Senate.
(2) In case of permanent incapacity or death or resignation of the President of the Republic, the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies provides for the election of a new President of the Republic within fifteen days, unless a longer period be foreseen because the Chambers are to be dissolved or because their term has less than three months to expire.

Article 87 [Head of State, Functions]
(1) The President of the Republic is the Head of the State and represents the unity of the Nation.
(2) He may send messages to Parliament.
(3) He provides for the election of a new Parliament and authorizes the date of its first meeting.
(4) He authorizes the submission to Parliament of Bills moved by the Government.
(5) He promulgates laws and issues decrees having the value of laws and regulations.
(6) He provides for a referendum in such cases as are laid down in the Constitution.
(7) He appoints, in the cases laid down by the law, the officials of the State.
(8) He accredits and receives diplomatic representatives and ratifies international treaties, provided they be authorized by Parliament whenever such authorization is necessary.
(9) He commands the Armed Forces, presides over the Supreme Defence Council as constituted by law, and declares a state of war when it has been decided by Parliament.
(10) He presides over the Superior Magistrate Council.
(11) He may grant pardons and commute court sentences.
(12) He confers the honors of the Republic.

Article 88 [Dissolution of Parliament]
(1) The President of the Republic may dissolve one or both Chambers after consultation with their Speakers.
(2) He may not exercise this right during the last six months of his term of office.

Article 89 [Countersignature]
(1) No act of the President is legal unless it is countersigned by the Ministers who have submitted it and accept his responsibility.
(2) Measures having the value of law and such others as are laid down by law shall also be countersigned by the President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister).

Article 90 [Presidential Indemnity]
The President of the Republic cannot be held responsible for acts carried out in the exercise of his duties, save in cases of high treason or breaches of the Constitution.

Article 91 [Oath of Loyalty]
Before taking office, the President of the Republic shall swear an oath of loyalty to the Republic and to the Constitution before Parliament in joint session.

Title III The Government

Title III The Government

Section I The Council of Minsters

Article 92 [Executive Power]
(1) The Government of the Republic consists of the President of the Council and of the Ministers jointly constituting the Council of Ministers.
(2) The President of the Republic appoints the President of the Council and the Ministers who are proposed.

Article 93 [Oath]
Before assuming office, the President of the Council and the Ministers shall be sworn in before the President of the Republic.

Article 94 [Governmental Elections]
(1) The Government must enjoy the confidence of the two Chambers.
(2) Each Chamber grants or refuses its confidence by a motion in which it gives its reasons and which is submitted to a nominal vote.
(3) Within ten days of its formation, the Government shall present its program to Parliament to obtain its vote of confidence.
(4) The contrary vote of one or of both Chambers on a Government proposal does not necessitate resignation.
(5) A vote of no confidence must be signed by at least one-tenth of the members of the Chamber and can only be debated three days after it has been submitted.

Article 95 [Functions]
(1) The President of the Council conducts, and is responsible for, the general policy of the Government. He maintains unity in general political and administrative policy, and promotes and coordinates the activities of the Ministers.
(2) Ministers are jointly responsible for the decisions of the Cabinet as a whole, and individually for those of their own particular departments.
(3) The law contemplates regulations concerning the Presidency of the Council of Ministers and establishes the number, responsibilities, and organization of the various Ministries.

Article 96 [Impeachment]
The President of the Council and the Ministers may be impeached by Parliament in joint session for offenses committed in the exercise of their duties.

Section II Public Administration

Article 97 [Rule of Law]
(1) Public departments are organized according to the provisions of the law, so that proper conduct and impartiality of administration shall be guaranteed.
(2) The competence, duties, and responsibilities of public officials are laid down in regulations on public departments.
(3) Appointments in the public administration are secured by competitive entry, unless otherwise laid down by law.

Article 98 [Independence of Officials]
(1) Public officials are exclusively at the service of the Nation.
(2) If they are members of Parliament they cannot be promoted save by seniority.
(3) Limitations to the right of registering as members of political parties may be laid down by law for members of the Judiciary, members of the fighting services on active duty, police officials and agents, and diplomatic and consular representatives abroad.

Section III Auxiliary Bodies

Article 99 [Council of Economy and Labor]
(1) The National Council of Economy and Labor is composed, according to the provisions of the law, of experts and representatives of productive branches, in such a manner that their numerical importance and their qualifications are properly taken into consideration.
(2) It is an advisory organ to Parliament and to the Government for such questions and duties as are attributed to it by law.
(3) It has the right to promote legislation and may contribute to the drafting of economic and social laws according to the principles, and within the limits laid down by law.

Article 100 [Council of State]
(1) The Council of State is an advisory organ on judicial-administrative matters and ensures the legality of public administration.
(2) The Court of Accounts (State Auditor's Department) exercises a form of preventive control on the legitimacy of Government measures and of subsequent control on the management of the budget. It takes part, in the cases and in the manner laid down by law, in the control of the financial management of those bodies to which the State normally contributes. It reports directly to Parliament on the results of the audit so executed.
(3) The law ensures the independence of these two organs and of their members vis-a-vis of the Government.

Title IV The Judiciary

Title IV The Judiciary

Section I Jurisdictional Organization

Article 101 [Judicial Power]
(1) Justice is administered in the name of the people.
(2) The judges are subject only to the laws.

Article 102 [Judges]
(1) The duties of the judiciary are carried out by permanent judges appointed and governed according to the provisions laid down in regulations on legal structure.
(2) No special judges may be appointed, but specialized sections may be set up and attached to the normal judicial organs for dealing with specific matters, and properly qualified citizens who are not members of the judiciary may participate.
(3) The law lays down the reasons and the manner in which private persons participate directly in the administration of Justice.

Article 103 [Council of States, Court of Accounts, Military
(1) The Council of State and other bodies concerned with administrative justice safeguard the legitimate interests of public administration and even those subjective rights that are foreseen by law.
(2) The Court of Accounts has jurisdiction over matters of public accounts and such other questions as are specified by law.
(3) Military Tribunals in war time have jurisdiction as authorized by law. In peace time their jurisdiction is limited to military offenses committed by members of the Armed Services.

Article 104 [Independent Judiciary]
(1) The Judiciary is an independent structure and is not subject to any other authority.
(2) The President of the Republic is Chairman of the Superior Magistrate Council.
(3) The senior judge and the Public Prosecutor of the Court of Cassation are ipso jure members of it.
(4) Of the other members, two-thirds are elected by all regular judges of different categories, and one-third by Parliament in joint session, selection being made among professors of law faculties and lawyers of at least fifteen years standing.
(5) The Council elects an Assistant Chairman from among the members chosen by Parliament.
(6) The elected members hold office for four years and are not immediately re-eligible.
(7) While they are in office they may not be registered on the Rolls of the legal profession, nor be members either of Parliament or of a Regional Council.

Article 105 [Superior Magistrate Council]
According to regulations, the Superior Magistrate Council is entrusted with the appointment, assignment, transfer, promotion, and disciplinary measures concerning the judges.

Article 106 [Qualification]
(1) Entry to the judiciary is by competitive examination.
(2) According to the regulations, honorary magistrates may be appointed, even by election, to perform all the duties attributed to individual Judges.
(3) On the proposal of the Superior Magistrate Council, professors of law and lawyers of at least fifteen years standing and registered in the special Rolls entitling them to practice in the senior courts may be appointed as councilors of the Supreme Court of Cassation for exceptional merits.

Article 107 [Disciplinary Measures]
(1) Judges cannot be removed from office. They may not be dismissed or suspended from their duties, nor transferred to other courts or duties, save by a decision of the Superior Magistrate Council taken for reasons and with guarantees for their defence laid down by regulations or with their own consent.
(2) The Minister of Justice is entitled to undertake disciplinary action.
(3) Judges differ from one another only on account of their different functions.
(4) The Public Prosecutor is safeguarded by the guarantees laid down in the regulations.

Article 108 [Court Structure]
(1) The rules governing legal structure and every judicial office are established by law.
(2) The law ensures the independence of the judges of special Courts, Public Prosecutors attached to these Courts and other persons taking part in the administration of justice.

Article 109 [Judicial Police]
The Judicial Police are at the direct disposal of the judiciary.

Article 110 [Minister of Justice]
Without prejudice to the competence of the Superior Magistrate Council, the organization and operation of services concerned with the administration of law are entrusted to the Minister of Justice.

Section II Regulations on Justice

Article 111 [Legal Proceedings]
(1) Valid reasons must be provided for all legal proceedings.
(2) Appeals to the Supreme Court of Cassation are always allowed against sentences and against measures concerning personal liberty delivered by the ordinary or special courts when violation of law occurs. These provisions may be abolished only in the case of sentences passed by Military Tribunals in time of war.
(3) Appeals to the Supreme Court of Cassation against decisions of the Council of State and of the Court of Accounts (State Auditor's Department) are only allowed for motions concerning jurisdiction.

Article 112 [Penal Proceedings]
The Public Prosecutor is responsible for instituting penal proceedings.

Article 113 [Recourse to the Courts]
(1) Claims for protection of rights in matters of legitimate interest before the organs of normal or administrative justice are always allowed against decisions taken by public administration.
(2) Such jurisdictional protection may not be exclusive or limited to special claims or to specific decisions.
(3) The law lays down those jurisdictional organs which may annul decisions of public administration according to the provisions established.

Title V The Regions, Provinces, and Communities

Title V The Regions, Provinces, and Communities

Article 114 [Local Entities]
The Republic is divided into Regions, Provinces, and Communities.

Article 115 [Autonomy]
The Regions are constituted as autonomous territorial units with their own powers and functions according to the principles established by the Constitution.

Article 116 [Special Forms of Autonomy]
Particular forms and conditions of autonomy, in accordance with special statutes adopted by constitutional law, are attributed to Sicily, Sardinia, Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli-Venetia Julia, and the Valle d'Aosta.

Article 117 [Regional Powers]
(1) Within the limits of the fundamental principles established by the laws of the State, the Region legislates in regard to the following matters, provided that such legislation is not in contrast with the interests of the Nation or of other Regions:
- Organization of the offices and the administrative bodies dependent on the Region;
- Town boundaries;
- Urban and rural police;
- Fairs and markets;
- Public charities and health and hospital assistance;
- Vocational training of artisans and scholastic assistance;
- Museums and libraries of local bodies;
- Town planning;
- Tourist trade and hotel industry;
- Tram and motor coach services of regional interest;
- Roads, aqueducts, and public works of regional interest;
- Lake navigation and ports;
- Mineral and spa waters;
- Quarries and peat bogs;
- Hunting;
- Fishing in lake and river waters;
- Agriculture and forestry;
- Artisanship;
- Other matters indicated by constitutional laws.
(2) The laws of Republic may delegate power to the Region to issue norms for their enforcement.

Article 118 [Administration]
(1) The administrative functions pertaining to the subjects listed in the preceding article reside in the Regions, except those of exclusively local interest which, by the laws of the Republic, may be delegated to the Provinces, Communities, or other local authorities.
(2) The State may, by law, delegate the exercise of other functions of an administrative nature to the Region.
(3) The Region normally exercises its administrative functions by delegating them to the Provinces, Communities, or other local authorities, or by administering them through their offices.

Article 119 [Financial Autonomy]
(1) The Regions have financial autonomy within the forms and limits established by the laws of the Republic which coordinate this regional autonomy with the finances of the State, the Provinces and the Communities.
(2) The Regions are assigned their own taxes and quotas of Exchequer taxes according to the expenditure necessary to the fulfillment of their normal functions.
(3) The State assigns by law special allocations to single Regions for specific purposes and particularly for the development of southern and insular Italy.
(4) The Region has its own demesne and patrimony according to the requirements of the laws of the Republic.

Article 120 [Duties]
(1) The Regions may not levy import or export duties or duties on transit between Regions.
(2) The Regions may not adopt provisions which hinder the free movement of persons or goods between Regions.
(3) The Regions may not limit the right of citizens to exercise their professions, employment, or labor in any part of national territory.

Article 121 [Regional Institutions]
(1) The official bodies of the Region are: the Regional Council, the Junta, and its President.
(2) The Regional Council exercises the legislative and administrative power granted to the Region and all other functions conferred on it by the Constitution and by law. It may propose Bills to Parliament.
(3) The Junta is the executive body of the Regions.
(4) The President of the Junta represents the Region; he promulgates regional laws and regulations and directs the administrative functions delegated to the Region by the State in accordance with the instructions of central government.

Article 122 [Rule of Law]
(1) The electoral system and the number and cases of ineligibility and incompatibility of Regional Councilors, are established by the laws of the Republic.
(2) No one may be a member of a Regional Council and a member of either Chamber of Parliament or another Regional Council at the same time.
(3) The Council elects a President from its own members and a President's Office for its functions.
(4) Regional Councilors may not be called upon to answer for opinions expressed or votes cast during the exercise of their duties.
(5) The President and members of the Junta are elected by the Regional Council from among its members.

Article 123 [Regional Statutes]
(1) Every Region has a statute which, in harmony with the Constitution and the laws of the Republic, establishes the norms relative to the internal organization of the Region. The regional statute controls the right of initiative and referendum on laws and provisions of an administrative nature within the Region and the publication of regional laws and regulations.
(2) The Statute is drafted and approved by the Regional Council through an absolute majority of its members and further approved by a law of the Republic.

Article 124 [Government Representative]
A Government representative, residing in the capital of the Region, supervises the administrative functions exercised by central government and coordinates them with those of the Region.

Article 125 [Control]
(1) Control of the legitimacy of administrative decisions in the Region is exercised, in decentralized form, by an organ of central government in the manner and within the limits established by the laws of the Republic. In specific cases, the law may admit re-examination of the merits of the case, but only to the extent of promoting, through a motivated request, a re-examination of a controversial decision by the Regional Council.
(2) The Regions have their own first degree courts for administrative actions in accordance with the requirements of the laws of the Republic. The courts may have branches in places other than the regional capital.

Article 126 [Dissolution of Regional Council]
(1) The Regional Council may be dissolved when it performs acts contrary to the Constitution or commits serious violations of the laws, or fails to respond to the request of the Government to replace its Junta or the President of the Junta when these have committed similar acts or violations.
(2) It may be dissolved when, by reason of resignation or through the impossibility of forming a majority, it is no longer in a position to fulfill its duties.
(3) It may also be dissolved for reasons of national security.
(4) The dissolution of the Regional Council is effected by a decree of the President of the Republic after an opinion has been offered by a Commission composed of Senators and Deputies, formed according to the laws of the Republic on regional affairs.
(5) The Decree of Dissolution is accompanied by the nomination of a Commission composed of three citizens eligible for the Regional Council, which announces the holding of new elections within a period of three months and provides for ordinary administration within the competence of the Junta and for such decisions as cannot be postponed: such decisions are subject to ratification by the new Regional Council.

Article 127 [Approval]
(1) Every law approved by the Regional Council shall be communicated to the Government representative who, except in the case of opposition on the part of the Government, must approve it within a period of thirty days from its submission.
(2) The law is promulgated within ten days from the date of approval and becomes effective not earlier than fifteen days from its publication. If a law is considered to be urgent by the Regional Council, and the Government of the Republic approves, then its promulgation and date of effect are not subject to the specified periods.
(3) The Government of the Republic, when it considers that a law approved by the Regional Council exceeds the competence of the Region or conflicts with the interests of the Nation or with those of other Regions, returns it to the Regional Council within the period established for approval.
(4) When the Regional Council approves it again by an absolute majority of its members, the Government of the Republic may, within fifteen days of communication of the fact, submit the question of its legitimacy to the Constitutional Court, and that of its merit, in the case of conflicting interests, to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. In case of doubt, the Constitutional Court shall decide on the competent body.

Article 128 [Provincial Autonomy]
The Provinces and the Communities are autonomous bodies within the principles laid down by the general laws of the Republic, which determine their function.

Article 129 [Decentralization]
(1) The Provinces and the Communities are also territorial units of State and regional decentralization.
(2) The territory contained within the Province may also be subdivided into districts with exclusively administrative functions, for the sake of further decentralization.

Article 130 [Provincial Institutions]
(1) A regional body, constituted in accordance with procedure established by the laws of the Republic, exercises, in a decentralized form, control over the legitimacy of decisions taken by the Provinces, Communes and other local bodies.
(2) In cases specified by law, control of an issue of general merit may be exercised in the form of a reasoned request submitted to the competent assembly for re-examination of decisions taken previously.

Article 131 [Instituted Regions]
The following Regions are instituted: Piedmont; Valle d'Aosta; Lombardy; Trentino-Alto Adige; Venetia; Friuli-Venetia Julia; Liguria; Emilia-Romagna; Tuscany; Umbria; Marches; Latium; Abruzzo; Molise; Campania; Apulia; Basilicata; Calabria; Sicily; Sardinia.

Article 132 [Delimitation]
(1) By constitutional law, the Regional Council having been heard, arrangements may be made for the merging of existing Regions or the creation of new Regions with a minimum of one million inhabitants, when such a request is made by as many Councils as represent at least one third of the interested populations and when the proposal has been approved by a referendum voted by the majority of the interested populations.
(2) By means of a referendum and by the laws of the Republic, the Regional Council having been heard, consent may be given for Provinces and Communities so desiring to be detached from one Region and attached to another.

Article 133 [Provincial Boundaries]
(1) Changes of provincial boundaries and the institution of new Provinces within the area of a Region, are established by laws of the Republic, after request from the Communities and the approval of the Region itself.
(2) The Region, having heard the interested population, may, by its own enactment, establish new Communities and modify their boundaries and names within its own territory.

Title VI Constitutional Guarantees

Title VI Constitutional Guarantees

Section I The Constitutional Court

Article 134 [Jurisdiction]
The Constitutional Court decides:
- on controversies concerning the constitutional legitimacy of laws and acts having the force of law, emanating from central and regional government;
- on controversies arising over constitutional assignment of powers within the State, between the State and the Regions, and between Regions;
- on impeachments of the President of the Republic and Ministers, according to the norms of the Constitution.

Article 135 [Composition]
(1) The Constitutional Court is composed of fifteen judges, a third of whom are nominated by the President of the Republic, one third by Parliament in joint session, and one third by the members of the ordinary and administrative supreme courts.
(2) The judges of the Constitutional Court are chosen from among the magistrates of the High and Administrative Courts, including those in retirement, professors of law, and lawyers who have been in practice for a minimum period of twenty years.
(3) The Court elects its President from among its members.
(4) Judges are nominated for a period of twelve years and some may be retained in office according to the norms established by law: they are not re-eligible immediately.
(5) The office of judge of the Constitutional Court may not be held concurrently with that of a member of Parliament, a member of a Regional Council, the exercise of the legal profession or with any position or office indicated by law.
(6) Following the same procedure used in the appointment of the judges of the Constitutional Court, Parliament shall draft a list of persons who, in case of necessity, shall be chosen to take part in proceedings following impeachment of the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister and the Ministers.

Article 136 [Functions]
(1) When the Court declares a norm of law, or an act having the force of law, to be unconstitutional, the norm ceases to have effect from the day following the publication of the decision.
(2) The decision of the Court is published and is communicated to Parliament and the interested Regional Councils in order that provisions may be made in constitutional form where considered necessary.

Article 137 [Time Limits]
(1) A constitutional law establishes the conditions, forms, and time limits for decisions on constitutional legitimacy and guarantees the independence of the judges of the Court.
(2) All other norms necessary for the constitution and functioning of the Court are established by ordinary legislation.
(3) The decisions of the Constitutional Court may not be contested.

Section II Amendments to the Constitution

Article 138 [Proceedings]
(1) Amendments to the Constitution and other constitutional laws are passed by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate in two successive sessions at an interval of not less than three months and are approved by an absolute majority of the members of each Chamber after a second reading.
(2) The laws themselves are submitted to popular referendum when, within three months of their publication, a demand shall be made by one fifth of the members of either Chamber or by 500,000 electors or by five Regional Councils. A law submitted to referendum shall not be promulgated unless approved by a majority of valid votes.
(3) A referendum shall not be held if the law has been approved in both Chambers, during a second reading, by a majority of two thirds of the members of each Chamber.

Article 139 [Restriction]
The Republican structure is not subject to constitutional amendment.

[Part III] Transitional and Final Provisions

[Part III] Transitional and Final Provisions

Article 1 [Provisional Head of State]
When the Constitution becomes effective, the Provisional Head of the State shall assume the title of President of the Republic and exercise the attributes of this office.

Article II [Presidential Election]
If at the time of the election of the President of the Republic the Regional Councils have not all been constituted, then only the members of the two Chambers shall participate in the said election.

Article III [First Senate]
(1) By a decree of the President of the Republic, for the first term the Senate will include among its members deputies of the Constituent Assembly who have the necessary qualifications by law for election to the Senate and who:
- have been President of the Council of Ministers, or Speaker or President of legislative bodies;
- have been members of the dissolved Senate;
- have been three times elected, including election to the Constituent Assembly;
- were dismissed during the session of the Chamber of Deputies of November 9, 1926;
- have suffered imprisonment for a period of not less than five years in consequence of sentences passed by the Special Fascist Court for State Defence.
(2) Members of the dissolved Senate who were also members of the National Consultative Assembly are also nominated Senators, by decree of the President of the Republic.
(3) The right to nomination as Senator may be renounced prior to signature of the decree of nomination. Acceptance of candidacy in political elections implies renunciation of the right to be nominated Senator.

Article IV [Molise]
In the case of first elections to the Senate, Molise is considered as a Region in itself, the number of its Senators depending on the proportion of its population.

Article V [International Treaties]
The provisions contained in Article 80 of the Constitution, insofar as they concern international treaties which impose charges on the budget or modifications of law, shall be effective from the date of convocation of the two Chambers.

Article VI [Judiciary Revision]
(1) Within five years of the effective date of the Constitution, a revision of the special organs of jurisdiction now existing shall be undertaken, with the exception of the Council of State, the Court of Accounts, and Military Tribunals.
(2) Within one year of the said date, provision shall be made by law for the reorganization of the Supreme Military Tribunal according to Article 111.

Article VII [Preliminary Revision]
(1) Until such time as new legislation on the Judiciary shall bring it into conformity with the Constitution, the norms at present in force shall continue to be observed.
(2) Until such time as the Constitutional Court shall begin to function, decisions over controversies as under Article 134 shall be rendered according to the forms and limits existing prior to the effective date of the Constitution.
(3) The judges of the Constitutional Court, nominated for the initial composition of that Court, shall not be subject to partial re-election and shall remain in office for a period of twelve years.

Article VIII [Regional Councils]
(1) The election of the Regional Councils and the elective organs of provincial administration shall take place within one year of the effective date of the Constitution.
(2) The laws of the Republic regulate, for all branches of public administration, the transfer of central government powers attributed to the Regions. Until provisions have been made for the reorganization and distribution of administrative functions among local government, the Provinces and Communities shall retain the functions they exercise at the present time as well as others which may be delegated to them by the Regions.
(3) The laws of the Republic regulate the transfer of public officials and dependents to the Regions, including those of central government, whenever such transfer shall be deemed necessary because of reorganization.
(4) In setting up their departments, the Regions must, except in cases of necessity, draw personnel from the Civil Service and local public bodies.

Article IX [Local Autonomy]
Within three years of the effective date of the Constitution, the Republic shall adjust laws according to the requirements of local autonomy and the legislative competence attributed to the Regions.

Article X [Friuli-Venetia Julia]
The general norms contained in Title V of Part Two shall be provisionally applied to Friuli-Venetia Julia referred to in Article 116; the protection of linguistic minorities remains binding as per Article 6.

Article XI [Formation of Regions]
Other Regions may be formed during the first five year period of the Constitution, by constitutional enactment and in modification of the list contained in Article 131, without recourse to the procedure required under Article 132 (1), but with the obligation to hear the opinions of the interested populations.

Article XII [Fascist Party]
(1) Reorganization of the former Fascist Party, under any form whatsoever, is prohibited.
(2) Notwithstanding Article 48, temporary limitations are established by law, for a period of not over five years from the elective date of the Constitution, on the suffrage and eligibility of the responsible heads of the Fascist regime.

Article XIII [House of Savoy]
(1) The members and descendants of the House of Savoy are not electors and may not hold any public office or elective position.
(2) Former kings of the House of Savoy, their wives and their male descendants may not enter or remain in Italian territory.
(3) Property within Italian territory belonging to the former kings of the House of Savoy, their wives and their male descendants, revert to the State. Transfers and the establishment of royal rights on such properties, which took place after June 2, 1946, are null and void.

Article XIV [Nobility]
(1) Titles of nobility are not recognized.
(3) The predicates of those existing before October 28, 1922, serve as part of the proper name.
(4) The Order of Ss. Maurizio e Lazzaro is preserved as a hospital corporation and functions according to the methods established by law.
(5) The law regulates the suppression of the Heraldic Council.

Article XV [Old Organizational Law]
When the Constitution goes into effect, the legislative decree of the Lieutenant of the Realm of June 25, 1944, No. 151 on the provisional organization of the State is held to be converted to law.

Article XVI [Old Constitutional Law]
Within one year from the effective date of the Constitution, the preceding constitutional laws, which have not been explicitly or implicitly abrogated, shall be revised and coordinated to conform with the Constitution itself.

Article XVII [New Statutes]
(1) The Constituent Assembly shall be convened by its President before January 31, 1948, to decide on the laws for the election of the Senate of the Republic, on the special regional statutes and on the law governing the press.
(2) Prior to the date of the elections, the Constituent Assembly may be convened whenever there is need to decide on matters within its competence, under Article 2 (1) & (2), and Article 3 (1) & (2), of the legislative decree of March 16, 1946 No. 98.
(3) The Standing Committees shall continue to function during this period.
(4) The Legislative Committees shall submit all Bills transmitted to them, with appropriate observations and proposals of amendments to the Government.
(5) Deputies may question the Government and request written replies.
(6) With reference to Paragraph (2), the Constituent Assembly is convened by its President on the written request of the Government or at least two hundred deputies.

Article XVIII [Promulgation]
(1) This present Constitution shall be promulgated by the Provisional Head of the State within five days of its approval by the Constituent Assembly, and shall come into effect as from January 1st, 1948.
(2) The text of the Constitution shall be deposited in the Town Hall of each Community of the Republic and shall be on view during the whole of 1948 in order that every citizen shall have knowledge of it.
(3) The Constitution, bearing the Seal of State, shall be inserted in the Official Records of the Laws and Decrees of the Republic.
(4) The Constitution shall be faithfully observed as the fundamental law of the Republic by all citizens and organs of the State.